Chinese Transnational Networks (Chinese Worlds)
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Shelly Chan. Nationalism in Southeast Asia. Nicholas Tarling. Secessionist Movements and Ethnic Conflict. Beata Huszka. Democratisation of Myanmar. Nehginpao Kipgen. Gourmets in the Land of Famine. Seung-Joon Lee. Norman Vasu. Managing Transitions. Gerry Groot.
Chinese Transnational Networks - Google книги
Southeast Asia and the Rise of China. Ian Storey. The Rural Modern. Kate Merkel-Hess.
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Chiao-min "Jimmy" Hsieh. Transitional Justice and Civil Society in the Balkans. China's Democratic Future. Bruce Gilley. Tim Summers. Cash flow is imperative in the TCN enterprise, and profits from drug sales in the United States must eventually make their way across the border, back to TCN headquarters. With Chinese businesses continuing to grow as global players, their services, willingly or unwillingly, become a viable partner to TCN.
In other words, goods from China might be cheaper, but the tariff would be prohibitively high.
The business gets cheap materials without tariffs, the TCN and corrupt officials get a cut of the profits, and the Mexican government loses valuable tax revenue. Appendix D. Chinese manufacturers can also reap hefty profits by selling counterfeit goods such as videos, clothing, and pharmaceuticals, and TCN have aggressively moved into this market. In parts of Mexico, TCN have gone as far as placing their own logos on the merchandise they peddle, forbidding the sale by retailers of goods not bearing their logo.
These practices and more reinforce an informal economy which is advantageous to TCN. Profits from the counterfeit goods acquired from their Chinese partners do not have to be integrated into the legitimate economy. Additionally, if their counterfeit, branded merchandise is less expensive than the legitimate alternatives, local consumers may be more hostile to the government when they take measures to penalize the counterfeits.
In communities where governance is weak, TCN can seize opportunities to diversify their economic activity. China is under strain from the downturn in US and EU markets for Chinese exports, and its products face greater competition due to inflation and rising costs of labor, utilities, and raw materials. Specialization in one sector can be risky. For example, the amber mines in Chiapas, have attracted the attention of Chinese dealers. Mining is a labor-intensive operation, but there is no problem when adults and children are abundant and willing to work for enormous sums of money.
The Mexican government has also yet to release any information about illicit mining activities tied to China. For example, the Chinese company involved in the vessel seizure filled with illegal iron ore in was not named, which stonewalled any independent investigations. The most politically visible issue between the US and Mexico is their shared 3,kilometer border, and the debate about migration across it rarely includes the subject of China.
China has become the leading source of immigrants worldwide, and the United States is an increasingly popular destination. Of the roughly 11 million unauthorized persons in the United States, approximately , of those are Chinese, making China the fifth largest ethnic group of undocumented migrants in the US.
Human smuggling and trafficking from China to the United States is certainly not new, and it has waxed and waned over several decades. Smuggling a Central or South American can certainly be expensive, with the added distance from China and added risk, smugglers can command steeper prices. The various smuggling routes controlled by rival Mexican TCN has required Chinese triads to form relationships with several different groups, such as Sinaloa, Los Zetas, and Knights Templar. It is unclear whether the Chinese will heavily back one group over another, but the triads are not a monolith either, as they have independent interests too.
The network and linkages make country-specific inputs and products more valuable, which in turn makes the networks and linkages more valuable. This means that connectivity is more important than ever before. Initiatives like the Belt and Road help build links across countries and help accelerate development. Without connectivity, Azerbaijanis would still be eating their own beluga caviar for protein. Now, they can lead more prosperous lives by selling it at exorbitant prices to the rest of the world. But building linkages on an international scale is difficult. A host of cross-border frictions and distortions abound — be they political, informational, or incentive issues.
Also, smaller and poorer countries may not have the capacity and finances to build these linkages. In this case, a large country can step in to absorb some of these risks and mitigate these distortions. China should step up to label itself as a supporter and leader of global networks.
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A historical example illustrates why being the central component of a network is sometimes better than being the most dominant. The Medici family in 14th century Florence was by no means the wealthiest nor the most political powerful.