Natural Product Synthesis I: Targets, Methods, Concepts (Topics in Current Chemistry 243)

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Ranging from classic to contemporary periods, Special attention is given to an interrelationship between management functions and the extent to which an external environment makes a critical impact to an organization. It also examines the basic roles, skills, functions of management necessary for accomplishing the objectives on grounds of human-related effects to organizations and ethical implications of managerial decisions. This course focuses on key characteristics of business and entrepreneurial approaches, covering basic business functions like operation, marketing, finance, accounting, management information system, and human resource management.

These functions provide a solid foundation for doing a business plan. The general principles of microeconomics and macroeconomics. In the microeconomics section, topics covered include the demand for and supply of goods, consumer behavior, production and costs, structure and output of production units under perfect and imperfect competitive markets, the concept of market failures, and the role of government intervention.

In the macroeconomics section, topics covered include objectives and problems in macroeconomics, the determination of national income, money and the banking system, introduction to fiscal and monetary policies used for economic stabilization, and the application of economic indices to analyze the economic situation.

In the international economics section, topics covered include the importance of international trade and finance, as well as the conflict between free trade and market protection. Experiments related to the contents in SC Experiments related to the contents in SC Laboratory practices involving measurement and errors, mechanics, waves and thermodynamics. Laboratory practices involving electricity, magnetism, optics and modern physics. Limits and continuity of multivariable functions, partial de rivativesderivatives, the chain rule, higher order partial derivatives, total differential and its applications, application of maximum and minimum of multivariable functions with unconstraint and constraint, polar coordinate and application of area solving, multiple integrals and applications.

Introduction to both financial and managerial accounting, and emphasizes the analysis and evaluation of accounting information as part of the managerial processes of planning, decision-making, and control. Overview of financial accounting: basic accounting concepts and principles, the structure of various types of financial statements; introduction of managerial accounting and the development and use of accounting information for internal decisions, cost behavior and analysis, product and service costing, and relevant costs for internal decision-making.

Characteristics, growth and relevant factors, metabolisms, classifications and identifications of microorganisms, relationship and influences of microorganisms on environments, controls of microorganisms, basic immunology, and applications. Prerequisite : Have taken SC Laboratory approaches in Genetics. Subjects involved biotechnology in various aspects including application, biosafety and control. Laws and regulations related to food manufacturing and quility assurance for consumer safety.

National and international standards. Food labeling and advertisement. Intertrade regulations. Food composition. Nutritional value. Changes, and deterioration of food. Unit operation in food industry. Principles of food processing including thermal, freezing, chilling, and fermenting processes. Quality assurance and evaluation. Food packaging. Product development. Food sanitation. Remark : Students from the department of Food Science and Technology can enroll in the course but the credits cannot be earned.

Ethical and legal issues in science and technology. Regulation, government policy and role of National Human Rights Commission, advance of science and technology ethics. Case study. Biochemical principles in living cells; chemical, physical and biological properties of water, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleotides, introduction to steady-state kinetics and enzyme mechanism, bioenergetics and electron transport system, metabolic pathway of glucose, the TCA cycle, glycogen metabolism; gluconeogenesis and the pentose phosphate pathway, the urea cycle, amino acid catabolism and synthesis, fatty acid catabolism and synthesis, DNA replication and repair, transcription and its control; RNA processing and translation.

Laboratory approaches in Biochemistry. Have taken ISC Microbial subcellular compartments and functions, growth and factors affecting growth, metabolisms, energy production, membrane transport and regulations, genetics of microorganisms, gene transfer and recombination and microbial molecular genetics. Tissue culture of plant and animal cells for micropropagation, produce secondary metabolite and field trips. Structures, functions and properties of DNA, tools for gene cloning, identifications and analyses of a specifically cloned gene, utilization of a cloned gene in prokaryotes and eukaryotes for medical, agricultural, and industrial aspects, and field trips.

Laboratory approaches in GeneticsGenetic Engineering. Principles of biotechnology are for environmental monitoring, industrial and agricultural pollutions treatment, biotechnology for sustainable chemical technology and field trips. A cycle of drug development in pharmaceutical industries, roles of computers in pharmaceutical industries, databases and tools related to drug discovery and design, structure-based and ligand-based drug design, studies of interactions between active compounds and their receptors, future trends in computer-aided drug design.

Biomaterials application with inorganic and organic materials, invention and design of nanomaterials in biotechnology field, medical agents study with nanotechnology, equipments and devices, including traditional technologies resolutions with modern nanotechnologies, and field trips.

Introduction to enzyme technology, structures, roles, chemical properties and specificity of enzyme, nomenclature and classification, mechanism of catalysis, kinetics and inhibition, regulation of activity and biosynthesis, separation, recovery, and purification, enzyme immobilization, sources of industrial enzymes, screening for new and improved enzymes, industrial applications of enzymes, laboratory approaches, and field trips.

The key operation and design for sampling plan and sample preservation, Sample preparation, digestion, Extraction for Industrial Processes, Fundamental and application of planar and column chromatography, Gas chromatography, Liquid chromatography, Principle and application of atomic absorption and emission spectroscopy, Application of Advanced Techniques for Industrial Uses. Microorganism important in food.

Chemical Biology and Biologics

Types of microorganism in food. Factors affecting growth of microorganism in food. Food spoilage microorganism. Food borne pathogen and control. Source of contamination. Quality deterioation and food spoilage. Effects of food processing on microorganism. Standard and analysis of microorganisms in foods. Category of food for health. Consumption for healthy life. Knowledge in food science and technology applied in daily life. Food for excretion of environmental toxicants. Understanding food labels. Food advertising literacy. Concept of good manufacturing for food production.

Raw material and ingredients used in food processing. Raw material handling and preparation including selection, cleaning, trimming and blanching. Post harvest technology. Unit operations in food industry including crystallization, filtration, extraction, size reduction and mixing. Properties of water used in food industry. Field trips. Fundamental of food processing including thermal processing, chilling, freezing, dehydration, irradiation, fermentation, concentration, and use of food additives.

Effects of processing methods on quality and storage of finished products. Role of cleaner technology for food industry. Emerging technology of food processing. Introduction to modern biochemical experimental methods of studying chemical and physical properties of biological molecules. Includes separation, identification, and characterization of biomolecules. Examples of enzyme mechanisms demonstrate how chemical principles are employed by living organisms.

Specific enzyme mechanisms used to illustrate principles from organic, inorganic, and physical chemistry. Discusses techniques to monitor enzyme reactions. Basic understanding of chemical nature of biomolecules and biomacromolecules. Introduces biomolecules such as amino acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids. Lectures focus on biophysical properties and synthesis, using practical examples and visual aids.

Lecture and laboratory experience teaching chemistry in laboratory. Students work closely with faculty members and are responsible for all aspects of teaching undergraduate laboratory techniques. Students also learn techniques for acquisition and storage of chemicals and laboratory apparatus, safety, disposal of chemical waste, and literature of chemical education.

Selected topics from recent chemical theory and applications, generally consisting of research presentations by invited faculty from other institutions. This course will also be used to teach students how to give effective presentations. May be repeated for a total of 2 credits. May be repeated within the degree for a maximum 2 credits.

Topics of interest in analytical, biological, environmental, geological, geochemical, inorganic, organic, and physical chemistry. Notes: Credit not allowed toward major in chemistry. Credit not allowed toward minor in chemistry. Enrollment is limited to Graduate, Non-Degree or Undergraduate level students.

Students in a Non-Degree Undergraduate degree may not enroll. Grading: This course is graded on the Graduate Regular scale. Organic core course. Principles and operation of modern instrumentation, emphasizing applications to analysis of chemical, biological, and environmental samples.

Methods include combined capillary column gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, optical methods, surface analysis methods, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, atomic emission and absorption spectrometry, and electroanalytical methods. With approval of research committee, students choose methods studied.

May be repeated within the term. Brief introduction to biochemistry, followed by an in-depth look at amino acids and proteins, 3-D structure, folding and dynamics, their specialized function and primary metabolism. Emphasizes enzymes and their chemical mechanisms and metabolism. Students will be assigned papers from the primary literature and be required to answer questions from these papers on exams.

Previous course in biology recommended but not required. Important biological compounds, including proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, and their interrelations. Current topics in chemistry, depending on instructor's specialty. Notes: May be repeated with different topics, with department approval. Synthetic and analytical chemistry of synthetic macromolecules. Topics include polymer solutions, molecular weight determination, spectroscopy, thermal analysis, x-ray crystallinity, polymerization types, and commercial and electroactive polymers.

Principles underlying molecular structure, reactivity, and reaction mechanisms. Topics include valence-bond and molecular-orbital theory, electronic interpretation of organic reactions, stereochemistry, conformational analysis, kinetics and thermodynamics of organic reactions, and photochemistry. Methods of sensing and measurement of radiation, particles, pressure, concentrations of specific elements and compounds.

Topics include basic operational amplifier circuits for analog signals, digitizing devices and computerized data collection, noise and noise-reduction methods, and specialized instrumentation systems for various areas of chemistry and physics. Also presents instrumentation such as detectors, pumps, and columns, and data acquisition. Advanced study covering application of kinetics to the elucidation of reaction mechanisms and application of statistical thermodynamics to theory of elementary reaction rates. Physical core course.

Focuses on the design and synthesis, structure and bonding of solid state compounds; physical properties and characterization of solids. Topics of current interest will also be included. Applies inorganic coordination chemistry and physical methods to understand structure and function of metal ion sites in biomolecules. Biochemical roles of metal centers in oxygen transport, metalloenzymes, and electron transfer. Topics include iron cytochromes, zinc and copper enzymes, cobalamins, iron sulfur proteins, inorganic model compounds, and metals in medicine. Inorganic core course.

Study of principles governing multimedia distribution and fate of organic chemicals in environment. Overview of origin and occurrence of major classes of natural and anthropogenic organic chemicals in environment. Environmental core course. Recommended Prerequisite: One semester of Physical Chemistry, or permission of instructor. Proteins play critical roles in most biological processes. Therefore, to understand these processes, it is necessary to understand proteins.

Biochemistry core course. Introduces the various classes of antibiotics. Introduction to the process of drug discovery. Covers modern methods and strategies of target identification, lead identification, and lead optimization. Introduction to the fundamental principles of protein-protein interactions, including experimental design considerations and methods for quantification of these interactions.

Drug design

Prelaboratory lecture and laboratory teaching in chemistry. Students work closely with faculty and are responsible for all aspects of teaching undergraduate laboratory techniques. Recommended Prerequisite: Enrollment in the graduate program and permission of Chair. Grading: This course is graded on the Graduate Special scale.

Pdf Natural Product Synthesis I: Targets, Methods, Concepts (Topics In Current Chemistry )

Introduces properties of solid surfaces. Topics include gas absorption isotherms, surface area measurement techniques, real and clean surfaces, physisorption and chemisorption, methods of gas adsorption and desorption, measurement of heats of adsorption, desorption kinetics, electron spectroscopies and surface sensitivities, instrumentation; and principles of vacuum technology.

In depth review of the chemistry of planets, comets and other bodies in the Solar System. Emphasis will be placed on the laboratory techniques and measurements made in order to understand and predict astronomical observations. Development and application of computational approaches to biological questions, with focus on formulating interdisciplinary problems as computational problems and then solving these problems using algorithmic techniques.

Computational techniques include those from statistics and computer science. Concurrently scheduled with course CMB. Enforced requisite: course Detailed examination of how various membrane proteins work. Topics include lipid bilayer properties and how they affect membrane protein function and biology; membrane protein biogenesis; principles of transport across membranes; how channels, transporters, and receptors work at atomic level. Emphasis on reading and analyzing original research papers.

Enforced requisites: courses A and either B or C, with grades of C- or better. Biochemcial reactivity of dioxygen, its role in mitochondrial metabolism, neurodegenerative diseases, apoptosis, and aging. Discussion of radical reactions, how they are harnessed to achieve enzyme catalysis, and how free radicals contribute to or regulate essential biological processes.

These same reactions "run amok" under certain types of stress and can contribute to wide variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases e. Requisites: courses A, B, C. Biochemical basis of controlling metabolic pathways by posttranslational modification of proteins, including phosphorylation and methylation reactions. Recent years have seen explosion in biochemical characterization of diverse structures and functions of RNA molecules in metabolism of living systems. RNA has been shown to act both as catalyst in living systems and as potent modulator of gene expression control at every level of gene expression pathways transcription, RNA processing, translation, degradation.

RNA molecules now being used as therapeutic agents in gene therapy approaches. Coverage of these various aspects and in-depth analysis of RNA structure and function, using primary research literature and analysis of molecular structures of RNA and RNA-protein complexes. Lecture, two to three hours; discussion, zero to two hours.

Recommended: courses C, , Life Sciences 4. Light harvesting, photochemistry, electron transfer, carbon fixation, carbohydrate metabolism, pigment synthesis in chloroplasts and bacteria. Assembly of photosynthetic membranes and regulation of genes encoding those components. Emphasis on understanding of experimental approaches. Requisite: course 30B with grade of C- or better. Chemical bonding; structure and bonding in solid state; main group, transition metal, lanthanide and actinide compounds and reactions; catalysis, spectroscopy, special topics. Requisite: course with grade of C- or better.

Requisites: course A, Mathematics 33B. Introduction to principles of electrochemical systems commonly applied in research of inorganic chemistry, materials sciences, and nanotechnology. With examples in recent literature and discussions of experimental practice, focus on qualitative and quantitative evaluation of information obtained from electrochemical characterization methods. Understanding of course contents helps appreciate research and technologies in catalysis, energy storage and conversion, and advanced environmental technologies.

Enforced requisites: courses 30CL and , with grades of C- or better. Synthesis of inorganic compounds, including air-sensitive materials; Schlenck techniques; chromatographic and ion exchange methods; spectroscopic characterization and literature applications. Requisites: courses A, B, A, and , with grades of C- or better. May be concurrently scheduled with course C Requisites: courses A and , with grades of C- or better. Group theoretical methods; molecular orbital theory; ligand-field theory; electronic spectroscopy; vibrational spectroscopy.

Requisites: courses A or AH , Role of metal ions in biology. Topics include interactions of metal ions with proteins, nucleic acids, and other biological molecules; mechanisms of metal ion transport and storage; introduction to metalloenzyme; metalloproteins in electron transfer, respiration, and photosynthesis; metals in medicine.

Survey of new materials and methods for their preparation and characterization, with emphasis on band theory and its relationship to chemical, optical, transport, and magnetic properties, leading to deeper understanding of these materials. Requisites: courses 30B, A. Synthesis of organic and inorganic macromolecules, thermodynamic and statistical mechanical descriptions of unique properties of polymers, polymer characterization methods, and special topics such as conductive and biomedical polymers and polymeric reagents in synthesis.

Enforced requisites: courses 30CL and A, with grades of C- or better. Theory and practice of instrumental techniques of chemical and structural analysis, including atomic absorption spectroscopy, gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, nuclear magnetic resonance, polarography, X-ray fluorescence, and other modern methods. Requisites: courses 30AL, A, A, Materials synthesis and physical properties of complex materials. Combines synthetic skills with fundamental physical understanding and characterization in approximately equal proportions to relate materials synthesis to materials function.

Same as Computational and Systems Biology M Covers random and stochastic processes in play in biochemical systems, including ion channels, cytoskeleton, cell migration and mitosis, gene expression networks, and signal transduction. Covers mathematical tools such as continuous and discrete Markov processes, first passage, time escape problems, statistical mechanics, and information theory.

Tutorial, to be arranged. Enforced corequisite: Honors Collegium E.

1. Introduction

Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to discuss selected USIE seminar topic, conduct preparatory research, and begin preparation of syllabus. Individual contract with faculty mentor required. May not be repeated. Enforced requisite: course SA. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor to finalize course syllabus. Enforced requisite: course SB. Individual study in regularly scheduled meetings with faculty mentor while facilitating USIE 88S course.

Designed as adjunct to undergraduate lecture course. Designed as adjunct to upper-division lecture course. Lecture, one hour; laboratory, four hours; workshop, two hours. Intended for students who are planning careers in secondary science chemistry teaching. Complements service learning California Teach science courses that involve teaching field experiences in middle school and high school classrooms. Examination of chemistry issues such as chemical storage and use, waste management, laboratory organization, safety, and techniques. Seminar, one hour; assigned setting, six hours.

Training and supervised practicum for advanced undergraduate students to assist in chemistry and biochemistry lectures. Students assist in preparation of materials and development of innovative programs under guidance of faculty members and teaching assistants. May not be applied toward course requirements for any departmental major.

May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor. Individual contract required. Information and contracts may be obtained from department. Seminar, one hour; assigned setting, five hours. Requisite: at least one term of prior experience in same course in which collaborative learning theory is practiced and refined under supervision of instructors. Training seminar for undergraduate students who are selected for learning assistants LA program. Exploration of current topics in pedagogy and education research focused on methods of learning and their practical application in small-group settings.

Students practice communication skills with frequent assessment of and feedback on progress. Seminar, one hour; clinic, one to eight hours. With instructor guidance, students apply pedagogical principles based on current education research, assist with development of innovative instructional materials, and receive frequent feedback on their progress. May be repeated for four times for credit. Weekly reading and oral presentations of research or research papers selected from current literature. Limited to undergraduate students. Discussion of readings selected from current literature in particular field.

Designed for undergraduate students who are part of research group. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in physical, organic, or inorganic chemistry or biochemistry. Discussion of current research and literature in research specialty of faculty member teaching course. Tutorial, three hours per week per unit. Entry-level research apprenticeship for upper-division students under guidance of faculty mentor. Consult department for additional information regarding requirements, enrollment petitions, and written proposal deadlines. May be repeated for maximum of 8 units.

Enforced requisite: course A 8 units. Research apprenticeship for upper-division students under guidance of faculty mentor. May be taken for maximum of 4 units. Supervised individual research under guidance of faculty mentor. Culminating report required. May be repeated for maximum of 12 units. Designed for graduate biochemistry and molecular biology students. How to write scientific proposals to be submitted to funding agencies. How to develop curricula vitae, put together grant proposals, and critique proposals. Discussion of ethics in graduate education, teaching, and chemical research, including issues such as conflicts of interest, plagiarism, intellectual property, sexual harassment, and other topics related to ethical conduct of research.

Lecture, 90 minutes. Data analysis and management, statistical methods, use of commercial reagents, microscopy data analysis, figure preparation, authorship, mentoring, human subjects protection, animal subject protection, and conflict of interest. Enforced requisite: course A or B or C. Cellular and molecular biology PhD students continue to learn how to conduct research in field to reliably advance knowledge while maintaining ethical principles.

Designed to be taken in fourth or fifth year of PhD work where students would have already been exposed to many challenges of performing and reporting experiments and who are in stage of their careers where they are beginning to think of applying for postdoctoral fellowships and research and teaching positions. Research seminar presented by second- and third-year students. Same as Pharmacology MA. Same as Pharmacology MB. Requisite: course CMA. Current research topics at interface of chemistry and biology.

Requisite or corequisite: course Half-hour presentations each session by three different chemistry professors to introduce their research programs. Designed for second-year graduate students to help them engage contemporary challenges in chemical research and their own research projects. Building of critical thinking skills and proposal writing skills.

Independent study project required of graduate students. Requisite: course CB.


  1. Relativity: The Special and the General Theory--A Clear Explanation that Anyone Can Understand?
  2. Publications.
  3. Fundamentals of Condensed Matter and Crystalline Physics: An Introduction for Students of Physics and Materials Science.
  4. Ernst Mach: Physicist and Philosopher.
  5. Status of Fuel Cell Technology!

Seminars presented by staff, outside speakers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students. Limited to chemistry graduate students. Discussion of recent progress in area of photon resolved spectroscopies, with focus on materials and biophysics applications. Literature discussion, discussion of recent results, safety procedures, and guest lectures. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in physical chemistry.

Bachelor's Programs

Lecture, two to four hours. Each course encompasses one recognized specialty in physical chemistry, generally taught by faculty members whose research interests embrace that specialty. Presentation of fundamentals of classical thermodynamics. Same as Physics MD. Fundamentals of nonequilibrium thermodynamics and statistical mechanics applied to molecular biophysics. Designed primarily for entering graduate physical chemistry students. Requisites: Mathematics 3C, Physics 6C. Selected topics from principles of biological structure; structures of globular proteins and RNAs; structures of fibrous proteins, nucleic acids, and polysaccharides; harmonic analysis and Fourier transforms; principles of electron, neutron, and X-ray diffraction; optical and computer filtering; three-dimensional reconstruction.

Laboratory, 10 hours. Corequisite: course MB. Methods in structural molecular biology, including experiments utilizing single crystal X-ray diffraction, low angle X-ray diffraction, electron diffraction, optical diffraction, optical filtering, three-dimensional reconstruction from electron micrographs, and model building. Advanced study and analysis of current topics in organic chemistry.

Requisite or corequisite: course CA. Each course encompasses one recognized specialty in organic chemistry, generally taught by faculty members whose research interests embrace that specialty. Requisite: course CA. Modern synthetic reactions and transformations involving organic substrates. Special emphasis on regents useful in asymmetric induction and stereoselective synthesis of structurally complex target molecules.

Theory behind planning of syntheses of complex molecules from simpler ones. Organic reactions and their use in synthetic process. Reasoning and art involved in organic synthesis. Seminars in organic chemistry and related areas presented by staff, outside speakers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students. Strongly recommended for first- and second-year organic chemistry graduate students. Presentation required if taken for letter grade.

Designed for first-year graduate students to teach advanced problem-solving skills and critical thinking, with focus on problems and recent literature pertaining to materials chemistry. How materials are synthesized and characterized. Discussion of important physical properties, as well as broad range of applications and behavior in devices. Designed for first-year graduate students to teach advanced problem-solving skills and critical thinking, with focus on problems and recent literature pertaining to chemical synthesis of organic, inorganic, and organometallic compounds.

Designed for first-year graduate students to teach advanced problem-solving skills and critical thinking, with focus on problems and recent literature pertaining to physical, theoretical, and biophysical chemistry. Same as Biological Chemistry M Advanced study and analysis of current topics in biochemistry.

Lecture, one hour; discussion, one hour; laboratory, four hours. Theory of hydrodynamic, thermodynamic, and optical techniques used to study structure and function of biological macromolecules. Lecture, two hours. Critical analysis of experimental design and methods in biochemistry and molecular biology. In-depth analysis of literature in one or more areas of current research. Laboratory, four hours. Enforced requisite: course CMA. Corequisite: course CMB.

Development and application of computational approaches to ask and answer biological questions by implementing variety of bioinformatics and systems biology algorithms. Advantages and disadvantages of different algorithmic methods for studying biological questions and preliminary understanding of how to compute statistical significance of results. Development of conceptual understanding of implementation of bioinformatics algorithms and foundation for how to do innovative work in these fields.

Experience in observing impact of computational complexity of algorithms in computing solutions. Requisites: courses A through D. Protein translocation into nucleus, mitochondrion, peroxisome, chloroplast, endoplasmic reticulum, and protein export in bacteria. Essential technologies and concepts practiced in proteomics-based research, including methods for protein separation and display, protein quantitation, and protein identification.

Emphasis on fundamentals of protein mass spectrometry. Enforced requisites: courses A, A, , Designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Why nanoscience is important and interesting and critical role of chemistry in nanoscience. Discussion of synthetic approaches, structures, and physical properties, as well as potential technological opportunities of each. Seminars presented by staff, outside speakers, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students on topics of current biochemical research interest.

Lecture, five hours; discussion, two hours. Requisites: courses A, B, C, Three-dimensional structure of proteins. Forces that stabilize structure of soluble and membrane proteins.