Design With Microclimate: The Secret to Comfortable Outdoor Space
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Variables such as building heights and orientations, spaces between buildings, plot coverage alter solar access, wind speed and direction at street level. To improve microclimate and comfort conditions urban design elements including vegetation and shading devices can be used. In warm-humid Dar es Salaam, the climate consideration in urban design has received little attention although the urban planning authorities try to develop the quality of planning and design.
The main aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between urban design, urban microclimate, and outdoor comfort in four built-up areas with different morphologies including low-, medium-, and high-rise buildings. Robert Brown helps us see that a 'thermally comfortable microclimate' is the very foundation of well-designed and well-used outdoor places.
Brown argues that as we try to minimise human-induced changes to the climate and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels - as some areas become warmer, some cooler, some wetter, and some drier, and all become more expensive to regulate - good microclimate design will become increasingly important. In the future, according to Brown, all designers will need to understand climatic issues and be able to respond to their challenges.
Brown describes the effects that climate has on outdoor spaces - using vivid illustrations and examples - while providing practical tools that can be used in everyday design practice. The heart of the book is Brown's own design process, as he provides useful guidelines that lead designers clearly through the complexity of climate data, precedents, site assessment, microclimate modification, communication, design, and evaluation. Brown strikes an ideal balance of technical information, anecdotes, examples, and illustrations to keep the book engaging and accessible.
His emphasis throughout is on creating microclimates that attend to the comfort, health, and well-being of people, animals, and plants. Passar bra ihop. Handbook of Stroke David O Wiebers, Valery L Feigin, Robert D Brown Thoroughly updated to reflect the best current practices in stroke medicine, Handbook of Stroke, Second Edition is a user-friendly one-stop guide to the clinical management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders-from clinical and laboratory as Classical Literature and its Reception Robert Demaria, Robert D Brown This anthology presents a selection of works that illustrates the traffic between British poetry and classical literature.
Recensioner i media. Scarborough N, McCowan Rd. Table 3 11h00—18h00 mean weather data from the stations used for modelling consolidated across all years. Table 5 Typical summertime air temperatures at Lester B.
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Figure 3. Figure 4. Discussion The proposed design modifications resulted in meaningful reductions in the daytime pEB during EHEs in the study CTs, nearly achieving a landscape of neutral thermal comfort, and suggest the possibility of post-design reductions in heat-related morbidity in these CTs.
Conclusions Published recommendations for microclimatically-appropriate design were applied to two CTs in Toronto that had high levels of heat-related ambulance calls during heat waves. Figure 2. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank Toronto Emergency Medical Services for sharing the ambulance call data used herein. Appendix A Figure A1. Figure A2.
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Appendix B Figure A3. Figure A4. Author Contributions Drew A. Conflicts of Interest The authors declare no conflict of interest. References 1. Oke T. The energetic basis of the urban heat island. Boundary Layer Climates. Chow W. Vulnerability to extreme heat in metropolitan Phoenix: Spatial, temporal, and demographic dimensions. Oleson K. Interactions between urbanization, heat stress, and climate change. Tan J. The urban heat island and its impact on heat waves and human health in Shanghai.
Reid C. Mapping community determinants of heat vulnerability. Health Perspect. Meehl G. Luber G. Climate Change and Extreme Heat Events. Smoyer K. Heat-stress-related mortality in five cities in Southern Ontario: — Semenza J. Robine J. Death toll exceeded 70, in Europe during the summer of Bassil K.
Effectiveness of Public health interventions in reducing morbidity and mortality during heat episodes: A structured review. Harlan S.
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Neighborhood microclimates and vulnerability to heat stress. Brown R. Designing urban parks that ameliorate the effects of climate change.
Urban Plan. Ameliorating the effects of climate change: Modifying microclimates through design. Vanos J. Human energy budget modeling in urban parks in Toronto and applications to emergency heat stress preparedness. Graham D. The relationship between neighbourhood tree canopy cover and heat-related ambulance calls during extreme heat events in Toronto, Canada.
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