Metallic And Inorganic Coatings; Metal Powders, Sintered P-M Structural Parts
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Using metal-containing photoresist allows to fabricate complex 3D geometries with the resolution that is an order of magnitude finer than that of the state-of-the-art metal AM methods. Another key aspect of any metal AM process is the throughput. High scanning speeds and intrinsic advantage of parallelizing light delivery using lithographic methods suggest that the presented AM process lends itself to streamlined and efficient manufacturing of metal nano-architectures. This nanoscale metal AM method is not limited to nickel: other organometallics can be used to derive UV-curable metal-based photoresists using similar chemical synthesis.
Nanoscale AM of metals has direct implications and opportunities for streamlined production of complex sub-millimeter devices, including 3D MEMS 6 , 3D microbattery electrodes 46 , and microrobots and tools for minimally invasive medical procedures We observed the nearly immediate change of the solution color from brown to green, which is indicative of a ligand exchange reaction Metal-containing photoresist was drop cast on a glass slide 0. Laser power and scan speeds were set at at The samples were then processed in a critical point dryer Autosamdri No additional processing was performed after pyrolysis.
Representative regions 1, 2, and 3 for the FFT analysis were chosen to contain a single particle or a region within a particle of interest. First, lattice distances d hkl for nickel, nickel II oxide, and nickel carbide were calculated based on the lattice parameters obtained from refs.
The phase assignment was verified by comparing the angle measured from the FFT pattern with the theoretical value for the obtained orientation, and further corroborated using the electron diffraction pattern in Fig. Relative density of each of the structures was calculated using a CAD model created in Abaqus with average unit cell sizes and beam diameters measured from the SEM images assuming fully-dense beams. Lattice density values were taken from refs. For structures in refs.
Beam diameter values in refs. Beam diameters for AlSi10Mg lattices were estimated from Fig. For electroplated copper meso-lattices in ref. The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Zocca, A.
Additive manufacturing of ceramics: issues, potentialities, and opportunities. Melchels, F. Additive manufacturing of tissues and organs. Frazier, W. Metal additive manufacturing: a review. Martina, F. Investigation of the benefits of plasma deposition for the additive layer manufacture of Ti—6Al—4V. Heinl, P. Cellular Ti—6Al—4V structures with interconnected macro porosity for bone implants fabricated by selective electron beam melting.
Acta Biomater. Vaezi, M. A review on 3D micro-additive manufacturing technologies. Hirt, L. Additive manufacturing of metal structures at the micrometer scale. Fei Guo, C. Metallic nanostructures for light trapping in energy-harvesting devices. Light Sci. Smaller is stronger: the effect of strain hardening. Acta Mater. Gu, X. Size-dependent deformation of nanocrystalline Pt nanopillars. Wendy Gu, X. Ultra-strong architected Cu meso-lattices. Schaedler, T. Ultralight metallic microlattices. Science , LP— Jang, D. Fabrication and deformation of three-dimensional hollow ceramic nanostructures.
Montemayor, L. Mechanical response of hollow metallic nanolattices: combining structural and material size effects. Liontas, R. Saleh, M. Three-dimensional microarchitected materials and devices using nanoparticle assembly by pointwise spatial printing. Wang, C. Investigation of molten metal droplet deposition and solidification for 3D printing techniques. Taminger, K. Electron beam freeform fabrication for cost effective near-net shape manufacturing. Gu, D. Laser additive manufacturing of metallic components: materials, processes and mechanisms.
Regenfuss, P. Principles of laser micro sintering. Rapid Prototyp. Seol, S. Electrodeposition-based 3D printing of metallic microarchitectures with controlled internal structures. Small 11 , — Template-free 3D microprinting of metals using a force-controlled nanopipette for layer-by-layer electrodeposition. Tanaka, T. Two-photon-induced reduction of metal ions for fabricating three-dimensional electrically conductive metallic microstructure. Shukla, S. Two-photon lithography of sub-wavelength metallic structures in a polymer matrix.
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Cohen, A. Onses, M. Mechanisms, capabilities, and applications of high-resolution electrohydrodynamic jet printing. Takai, T. Three-dimensional microfabrication using local electrophoresis deposition and a laser trapping technique. Express 22 , — Skylar-Scott, M. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed no evidence that associated the anomalous coercivity reduction and recovery with grain boundary morphology.
On the other hand, various HDDR powders with different particle sizes were sintered , and finer powders yielded lower coercivity after sintering , implying that the anomalous coercivity reduction was associated with particle surface oxides of the raw powder. Krinitcyn, Maksim G. The microstructure and porosity of obtained composites are investigated and discussed. The dependence of porosity on sintering time is explained theoretically. Optimal regimes that enable to obtain the most homogeneous structure with the least porosity are described.
Nano or micro grained alumina powder? A choose before sintering. Full Text Available Two different wet routes have been used to synthesize alumina powders in order to compare the characteristics of the final product and its behaviour during sintering. The Homogeneous Precipitation HP gives rise to nanoparticulated powders of about 2 nm. However, such particles quickly aggregate and grow with calcination temperature. The characterization of the powder surface is the basis of an efficient process control. The results show the evolution from the amorphous to the corundum alumina phase for both processes and their ability for sintering , as well discuses the beneficial of nanoparticles obtained by HP during sintering.
Selective laser sintering SLS is an additive technique which is showing great promise over conventional manufacturing techniques.
SLS requires certain key material properties for a polymer powder to be successfully processed into an end-use part, and therefore limited selection of materials are available. Thermogravimetric analyses, differential scanning calorimetry, and bulk density measurements were investigated. Powder injection molding of Stellite 6 powder : Sintering , microstructural and mechanical properties. The purpose of this study was to produce Co-based Stellite 6 superalloy components by using the method of Powder Injection Molding PIM and to characterize the microstructural and mechanical properties of the produced components.
The experimental studies were started through the formation of feedstock by mixing Stellite 6 powder with a multicomponent binder system. Prepared feedstock was formed by utilizing powder injection molding technique. Then the molded samples were subjected to the solvent and thermal debinding processes. Different sintering cycles were applied to the raw components for the purpose of determining the optimum sintering conditions. The densities of the sintered components were determined in accordance with the Archimedes' principle.
Hardness measurement and tensile test were conducted in order to determine the mechanical properties. The results illustrated that the injection molded Stellite 6 components were composed of fine and equiaxed grains, plenty of carbide precipitates exhibiting homogenous distribution throughout the microstructure formed at the grain boundaries and thus the mechanical properties were considerably high.
Introduction to Powder Metallurgy | Powder Metallurgy | ASM Handbooks Online | ASM Digital Library
Master sintering curves of two different alumina powder compacts. The sintering behaviour can be predicted, and sintering activation energy can be calculated with the help of few dilatometric measurements. In this paper an automatic procedure was used to calculate Master Sintering Curves of two different alumina compacts.
The possibility to predict sintering behaviour with the help of Master Sintering Curve was verified. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering.
The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release. Grain growth in ultrafine titanium powders during sintering. The activation energies of grain growth Q g in fine titanium were found to be The nanocrystalline titanium showed very low values of Q g The constant n in nano Ti system was found to have unusually very high values of 6.
The grain boundary rotation along with the diffusional processes could be the grain growth mechanism in nanocrystalline and in fine titanium powders. Method of making highly sinterable lanthanum chromite powder. A highly sinterable powder consisting essentially of LaCrO. Full Text Available L stainless steel is a well-established engineering material and lots of components are fabricated by either ingot metallurgy or powder metallurgy.
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From the viewpoints of material properties and process versatility, powder metallurgy has been widely applied in industries. Generally, stainless steel powders are prepared by atomization processes and powder characteristics, compaction ability, and sinterability are quite different according to the powder preparation process.
In the present study, a nanoparticle dispersed micro-sphere powder is synthesized by pulse wire explosion of L stainless steel wire in order to facilitate compaction ability and sintering ability. Nanoparticles which are deposited on the surface of micro- powder are advantageous for a rigid die compaction while spherical micro- powder is not to be compacted.
Additionally, double step sintering behavior is observed for the powder in the dilatometry of cylindrical compact body. Earlier shrinkage peak comes from the sintering of nanoparticle and later one results from the micro- powder sintering. Microstructure as well as phase composition of the sintered body is investigated. Full Text Available Multi-walled carbon nanotubes CNTs as nano-reinforcements were introduced to facilitate the laser sintering process and enhance the thermal and mechanical properties of polymeric composites.
The composite powders exhibited improved heat conduction and heat absorption compared with virgin polymer powders , and the stable sintering range of composite powders was extended and found to be favourable for the sintering process. The microstructures of sintered composites revealed that the CNTs remained at the powder boundaries and formed network architectures, which instantaneously induced the significant enhancements in tensile strength, elongation at break and toughness without sacrificing tensile modulus.
Full Text Available Porous metal with uniform honeycomb structure was successfully produced by sintering using Fe-Cr-Al nano powder , which was prepared by the pulsed wire evaporation PWE in ethanol. Its process consisted of the several steps; 1 coating on the surface of polyurethane sponge with the liquid droplets generated from the ethanol-based slurry where the Fe-Cr-Al nano powders were uniformly dispersed, 2 heat treatment of debinding to remove the polyurethane sponge and 3 sintering of the porous green body formed by Fe-Cr-Al nano powders.
Also, The shrinkages and the oxidation resistance of the sintered porous body was increased with increase of sintering temperature. The milled powders were cold compacted at , , and MPa pressures. The compressibility behavior of the powders was evaluated using the Heckel, Panelli-Ambrosio and Ge models. The microstructural investigations of the sintered samples by Scanning Electron Microscopy SEM confirmed the presence of porosities at the interface of copper-tungsten carbide phases. To investigate the physical properties of titanium alloy fabricated with vacuum- sintered powder metallurgy.
The build-up and, condensation method and a double-direction press with a metal mold were used. The green compacts were sintered at degrees C for 15 minutes in a vacuum furnace at 0. In the double-direction press, the specimens were compacted at the pressure of MPa, MPa and MPa respectively. Then the linear shrinkage ratio and the opening porosity of the sintered compacts were evaluated respectively. The composition of titanium-based metal powder mixtures and the compacted pressures affect the physical properties of sintered compacts. Titanium powder plated with copper and tin is compacted and sintered easily, and the physical properties of sintered compacts are greatly improved.
In-situ observations on the shrinkage of green pellets with precisely controlled dimensions were carefully conducted by using TOM during H2 atmosphere sintering. It would be important to understand the different sintering characteristics of UO 2 powders according to the powder routes, when it comes to designing a new sintering process or choosing a sintering additive for new fuel pellet like PCI Pellet Cladding Interaction remedy pellet. In this paper, we have investigated the initial and intermediate sintering shrinkage of UO 2 from different powder routes by in-situ observation of green samples during H2 atmosphere sintering.
The admixed titanium compacts of PGA and PWA have shown significant effect on densification through formation of intermetallic compound and reducing porosity during sintering process. The role of the native oxide shell on the microwave sintering of copper metal powder compacts. However, the concept behind microwave heating of metal powders has not been fully understood till now, as it is well known that bulk metals reflect microwaves.
The progress of microwave sintering of copper metal powder compacts was investigated via combining both in-situ electrical resistivity and dilatometry measurements that give important information about microstructural changes with respect to the inter-particle electrical contacts during sintering. The sintering behavior of copper metal powders was depending on the type of the gas used, particle size, the initial green density, the soaking sintering time and the thin oxide layer on the particles surfaces.
The thin copper oxide native layer ceramics that thermodynamically formed on the particles surfaces under normal handling and ambient environmental conditions had a very critical and important role in the microwave absorption and interaction, the sintering behavior and the microstructural changes. Direct laser sintering of metal powders : Mechanism, kinetics and microstructural features.
In the present work, the densification and microstructural evolution during direct laser sintering of metal powders were studied. The empirical sintering rate data was related to the energy input of the laser beam according to the first order kinetics equation to establish a simple sintering model. The equation calculates the densification of metal powders during direct laser sintering process as a function of operating parameters including laser power, scan rate, layer thickness and scan line spacing.
The coefficient K is designated as 'densification coefficient'; a material dependent parameter that varies with chemical composition, powder particle size, and oxygen content of the powder material. The mechanism of particle bonding and microstructural features of the laser sintered powders are addressed. Microstructure and properties of gravity sintered l stainless steel powder with nickel boride addition. Full Text Available The present work demonstrates a procedure for synthesis of stainless steel powder by gravity sintering method.
As an additive to the basic powder , NiB powder was added in the amount of 0. Structural characterization was conducted by XRD, and microstructural analysis by optical and scanning electron microscope SEM. Mechanical properties were investigated by tensile tests with steel rings. Density and permeability were determined by standard techniques for porous samples. Gravity sintered stainless steel with NiB addition had more superior mechanical and physico-chemical properties compared to stainless steel obtained by standard powder metallurgy procedures - pressing and sintering.
Specific to this technology is the sintering of the metal powder prior to the melting process. The sintering process has disadvantages for post-processing. The post-processing of parts produced by SEBM typically involves the removal of semi- sintered powder through the use of a powder blasting system. Furthermore, the sintering of large areas before melting decreases productivity. Current investigations are aimed at improving the sintering process in order to achieve better productivity, geometric accuracy, and resolution.
In this study, the focus lies on the modification of the sintering process. In order to investigate and improve the sintering process, highly porous titanium test specimens with various scan speeds were built. The aim of this study was to decrease build time with comparable mechanical properties of the components and to remove the residual powder more easily after a build. By only sintering the area in which the melt pool for the components is created, an average productivity improvement of approx.
Tensile tests were carried out, and the measured mechanical properties show comparatively or slightly improved values compared with the reference. Selective electron beam melting SEBM is a relatively new additive manufacturing technology for metallic materials. Wet milled powder was prepared and sintered to compare the morphology and sinterability with the dry milled powder. A method for preparing a sintered glass powder for manufacturing microspheres. The invention relates to the manufacture of sintered glass- powder. It relates to a method comprising the step of forming a vitreous gel so that it contains an occluded substance adapted to expand when heated, said gel being subsequently dried, then crushed and sorted prior to being washed and dried again.
Application to the manufacture of sintered glass- powder for forming microspheres adapted to contain a thermonuclear fuel [fr. Effect of microstructure changes on magnetic properties of spark plasma sintered Nd-Fe-B powders. MQ powders. The powders were sintered in a wide range of temperature, for 5 min.
The coercivity decreased gradually with increasing sintering temperature. The coercivity of this material also decreased with increasing sintering temperature. The proportion of the RE-rich and iron phases increases parallel to the increasing sintering temperature. On the basis of the current results one can conclude that fabrication of high density MQ powders based magnets by the SPS method is possible, however the powders having higher RE content should be used for this purpose and the sintering temperature as low as possible, related to density, should be kept.
Methodological approach of load sintering of ceramics superconductor, alumina, alumina- aluminium nitride-magnesia system. Sintering parameters knowledge of ceramic powders by improvements of a high temperature pressing computer piloting and data acquiring allow a better control of fabrication and of the desired properties mechanical, electro-magnetic By using experiences plan, maximum of informations are obtained with a minimum of experimental tests. This is applied to the sintering of three compounds; for YBaCuO, the superconductive phase is obtained at deg and without post heat treatment; for Al 2 O 3 , mechanical properties and a partial microstructure controls are obtained; for the Al 2 O 3 -AlN-MgO system, an optimization of the mechanical properties is obtained.
Specific features of laser selective sintering of loose powder layers of metal-polymer type. Experimental study was carried out into laser sintering of metal and polymer powder mixtures containing 75 vol. The powder mixture was deposited on a stainless steel substrate and heated by continuous laser beam directed normally to powder layer. Geometrical and structural parameters of single and multilayer sintered products are shown to depend on both laser processing conditions and heat transfer. Some recommendations are given aimed at manufacturing articles of required shape, surface properties and material strength.
The influence of dislocation defects on the sintering kinetics of ferrite powders. In the presented paper are given the results of the X-ray investigations of non-equilibrium defects in powders of nickel-zinc ferrites. The block size, the crystal lattice microdistortions and stacking faults of two types were determined by the method of Fourier's analysis of diffraction line profiles.
The influence of similar defects on sintering of ferrite powders was shown. The kinetics data on densification processes occurring during sintering of active powders can adequately be described in terms of the equations which describe reactions in the solid phase, where the interaction limit is on the border of the phases with different geomtery of the border.
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The correlation between the behaviour of compacts and dislocation defects in powders during sintering is established. Sintering behaviour of CeO2-Gd2O3 powders prepared by the oxalate coprecipitation method. The powder and compact characteristics as well as the sintering behaviour of two CeO 2 -Gd 2 O 3 compositions prepared by the oxalate coprecipitation method are studied as a function of the powder particle size and the pore-size distribution in the powder compacts. Shrinkage was measured at a constant heating rate and the results are compared with those obtained by isothermal sintering experiments.
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Grain growth and microstructural development on sintered samples were studied. Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets fabrication by using atomized powders. Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets are required to achieve high coercivity for improvement of their thermal stability. Dy is added to increase coercivity, however, this element decrease magnetization and energy products. Therefore, Dy-lean Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets with high coercivity are strongly demanded. To increase coercivity, it is necessary that microstructure of sintered magnets is consisted of both fine main phase particles and homogeneously distributed Nd-rich phases around the main phase.
To meet those requirements, Nd-Fe-B atomized powders were applied to the fabrication process of sintered magnets. Comparing with the case of using strip casting SC alloys, jet-milled powders from atomized powders show homogeneous distribution of Nd-rich phase. This difference in coercivity was due to initial oxygen concentration of starting materials.
Consequently, Nd-rich phases became oxides with high melting points, and did not melt and spread during sintering and annealing. The evaluation of microstructure and mechanical properties of sintered sub-micron WC-Co powders. A cemented tungsten carbide WC-Co is widely used for a variety of machining, cutting, drilling and other applications. The properties of this tungsten heavy alloy are sensitive to processing and degraded by residual porosity. The sequence of high end powder metallurgy process include mixing, compacting and followed by multi-atmosphere sintering of green compact were analyzed.
The powder compacts were sintered at temperatures cycle in the range of degree Celsius degree Celsius in nitrogen-based sintering atmosphere. To date, however there have been few reported studies in the literature that the best sintering was carried out via liquid phase sintering in vacuum at approximately degree Celsius. Therefore, the attention of this work is to develop and produce wear resistant component with better properties or comparable to the commercial ones. Synthesis and sintering of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powders by citric acid sol-gel combustion method.
The citric acid sol-gel combustion method has been used for the synthesis of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite HAP powder from calcium nitrate, diammonium hydrogen phosphate and citric acid. The HAP powder has been sintered into microporous ceramic in air at deg. C with 3 h soaking time. The physical characterization of open porosity and flexural strength have also been carried out. Detailed experiments carried out to examine relationship between microstructure and mechanical properties of powder -blended aluminum products are reported; their results as well as structural studies by transmission electron microscopy and tensile-and creep- testing, are given; as dispersed phase Mechanical properties of lightweight aerated concrete with different aluminium powder content.
Full Text Available Aerated concrete is produced by introducing gas into a concrete, the amount dependent upon the requirements for strength. One method to achieve this is by using powdered aluminium which reacts with the calcium hydroxide produced upon hydration of the cement. The aim of the current study was to investigate the influence of the powder content on the mechanical properties of aerated concrete namely; compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, density and porosity.
The results indicated that an increase in aluminium content caused a decrease in the compressive and tensile strengths. It also produced a decrease in the modulus of elasticity. When the aluminium content increased, the density decreased and the porosity increased. Superior sinterability of nano-crystalline gadolinium doped ceria powders synthesized by co-precipitation method.
Reduced sintering temperature of doped ceria can greatly simplify the fabrication process of solid oxide fuel cells SOFCs by utilizing the co-firing of all cell components with a single step. In the present study, nano-crystalline gadolinium doped ceria GDC powders of high sinterability at lower sintering temperature has been synthesized by co-precipitation at room temperature. It has also been found that the sintered samples have a higher ionic conductivity of 1. Compaction and sintering of nickel powder used encapsulation of irradiation targets.
Miyano, Rosana S. The objective of this study was to develop an alternative way to produce targets for irradiation containing uranium, for the pair of 99 Mo production 99m Tc radionuclide. These targets were obtained by powder metallurgy, the compact serving as means for encapsulation a uranium cylinder to be irradiated. The targets were compacted in an axial hydraulic press applying different pressures up to MPa.
The nickel powder was of high purity, that in order to provide the sealing of the fissile content within the compacted. The bulk density of compacted was evaluated by the method geometric. The porosity was measured by mercury porosimetry technique. The microstructure was investigated by optical microscopy. The results obtained with sintering powders involving confirm the feasibility of achieving a casing for uranium targets.
The evaluation of different environments in ultra-high frequency induction sintered powder metal compacts. The three different environments: atmosphere, argon and vacuum were applied to the PM compacts. Iron based PM compacts were sintered at degree centigrade for a total of seconds by using induction sintering machines with 2. Micro structural properties, densities, roughness and micro hardness values were obtained for all environments. The results were compared with each other. Certain powder and others components can induce toxic reactions if not properly handled in the mixing stage.
During handling, the small particles can become airborne and be trapped in the lungs, another concern is inhomogeneities in the mixing process. Uniform quantities of the particles of the components are needed in all portions of the mixture. This paper reports the results of mechanical properties studies of mixing three components formulation for mixing process. Macroscopic optic and macro photo was carried out to identify the homogenity of mixing, tensile test for identify the strength of component after mixing. The result of simulation autodesk mold flow adviser the filling time 6 seconds.
Otherwise on manual hot hidraulic press the time of filling 10 seconds. Effect of intense vibration treatment on the powder fine structure and reaction ability during sintering. Effects of a vibration grinding treatment of TiC-Ni and TiC-Ni-Cr titanium carbide-metal powder composition on the size of X-ray coherent scattering zones as well as the melt and crystallization temperatures under liquid-phase sintering have been investigated. Hardness and strength of composites sintered from the blends grinded for 4 h and more are found to be decreased that is explained by high porosity due to oxygen contamination of powder blends during a dry grinding treatment [ru.
Densification behavior and mechanical property were determined from the experimental results and analysis such as changes in linear shrinkage, shrinkage rate, microstructure, and phase during sintering process, Vicker's hardness and transverse rupture strength tests. While the former showed a rapid increase in densification rate only at higher temperature region of o C, the latter revealed firstly a rapid increase in densification rate even at low temperature of o C and a subsequent increase up to o C.
Sintered bodies were composed mainly of NiAl phase with Ni 3 Al as secondary phase for both powders. Sintered body of MA-NiAl powder showed a very fine grain structure. Crystallite size determined by XRD result and the Sherrer's equation was approximately 80 nm. Sintering of Cu and thermoelectric Ca3Co4O9 was tried using a modified pulsed electric current sintering PECS process, where an electrically nonconductive die was used instead of a conventional graphite die.
The pulsed electric current flowed through graphite punches and sample powder , which caused the Joule heating of the powder compact itself, resulting in sintering under smaller power consumption. Effect of agglomerate strength on sintered density for yttria powders containing agglomerates of monosize spheres. The effect of agglomerate strength on sintered density was determined for several yttria powders made by intentionally agglomerating 0. In this way, the effects of differences in particle morphology and other characteristics among the powders were minimized and the effect of agglomerate strength could be seen more clearly.
Development of a dielectric ceramic based on diatomite-titania. Part one: powder preparation and sintering study. Full Text Available This work presents powder preparation and sintering experiments of a mixture diatomite-titania. The sintering process was investigated as a function of sintering temperature and time, mass variation, linear shrinkage and activation energy.
The results show that sintering of diatomite-titania could be described by a viscous flow mechanism. X-ray powder diffraction analysis of liquid-phase- sintered silicon carbide ceramics. Ortiz, A. Here we have used X-ray diffraction to obtain the relative abundance of the resulting SiC polytypes after sintering. This study investigated the effect of nickel Ni, which is widely used in PM steels, on the liquid phase sintering of boron-containing PM steels. The results showed that the addition of 1. However, adding 1. Thermodynamic simulation demonstrated that the presence of Ni lowers the temperature region of liquid formation, resulting in enhanced LPS densification.
Structure and characteristics of functional powder composite materials obtained by spark plasma sintering. The article describes the results of spark plasma sintering of ceramic materials based on titanium carbide, titanium carbosilicide, ceramic composite materials based on zirconium oxide, strengthened by carbon nanostructures and composite materials of electrotechnical purpose based on copper with addition of carbon structures and titanium carbosilicide.
The effect of sintering temperature on the phase composition, density and porosity of the final product has been studied. It was found that with addition of carbon nanostructures the relative density and hardness decrease, but the fracture strength of ZrO2 increases up to times 2. The relative erosion resistance of the electrodes made of composite copper-based powder materials, obtained by spark plasma sintering during electroerosion treatment of tool steel exceeds that parameter of pure copper up to times Some aspects of barreling in sintered plain carbon steel powder metallurgy preforms during cold upsetting.
Sintered plain carbon steel cylindrical preforms with carbon C contents of 0, 0. Each sintered preform was cold upset under two different frictional constraints. It is seen that the degree of bulging reduces with reducing frictional constraints at the die contact surface. Further, it is found that the bulging ratio changed as a function of relative density and hydrostatic stress, respectively, according to the power law equations. Additive Manufacturing AM is two decade old technology; where parts are build layer manufacturing method directly from a CAD template. Over the years, AM techniques changes the future way of part fabrication with enhanced intricacy and custom-made features are aimed.
Commercially polymers, metals, ceramic and metal-polymer composites are in practice where polymers enhanced the expectations in AM and are considered as a kind of next industrial revolution.
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Growing trend in polymer application motivated to study their feasibility and properties. Laser sintering , Heat sintering and Inhibition sintering are the most successful AM techniques for polymers but having least application. The presentation gives up selective sintering of powder polymers and listed commercially available polymer materials. Important significant factors for effective processing and analytical approaches to access them are discussed.
Kafili, G. The products were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. This amount of transmission was obtained by only the sintering of the powder specimen without any colloidal forming process before sintering or adding any sintering aids or dopant elements.
However, by spark plasma sintering of alumina-yttria nanocomposite powder synthesized in AHC system, an opaque YAG ceramic with an average grain size of 1. Microstructural observations revealed that the microwave-assisted hot press sintering at different sintering temperatures of C and Moreover, the application of pressure in microwave sintering process led to more densification and grain growth. Mechanical properties resulting from microhardness and nanoindentation tests were also compared between three-method processed samples. It was found that the microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample exhibited higher hardness and elastic modulus in comparison with microwave- sintered and conventional hot-pressed samples.
The improvement in the mechanical properties can be ascribed to lower porosity of microwave-assisted hot-pressed sample. Effect of process parameters on surface oxides on chromium-alloyed steel powder during sintering. The use of chromium in the PM steel industry today puts high demands on the choice and control of the atmosphere during the sintering process due to its high affinity to oxygen.
Particular attention is required in order to control the surface chemistry of the powder which in turn is the key factor for the successful sintering and production of PM parts. Different atmosphere compositions, heating rates and green densities were employed while performing sintering trials on water atomized steel powder pre-alloyed with 3 wt.
Fracture surfaces of sintered samples were examined using high resolution scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray microanalysis. The investigation was complemented with thermogravimetric TG studies. Reaction products in particulate form containing strong-oxide forming elements such as Cr, Si and Mn were formed during sintering for all conditions.
Processing in vacuum results in intensive inter-particle neck development during the heating stage and consequently in the excessive enclosure of surface oxide which is reflected in less good final mechanical properties. Enhanced oxide reduction was observed in samples processed in hydrogen-containing atmospheres independent of the actual content in the range of 3—10 vol. A simple model for the enclosure and growth of oxide inclusions during the sinter -neck development is proposed. Full Text Available This study investigates phase transformation and mechanical properties of porous NiTi alloys using two different powder compacts i.
The compacted powder mixtures were sintered in vacuum at a final temperature of K. The phase evolution was performed by in situ neutron diffraction upon sintering and cooling. The predominant phase identified in all the produced porous NiTi alloys after being sintered at K is B2 NiTi phase with the presence of other minor phases. It is found that dehydrogenation of TiH2 significantly affects the sintering behavior and resultant microstructure. Moreover, there is a direct evidence of the eutectoid decomposition of NiTi at ca. Influence of sintering temperature on the properties of pulsed electric current sintered hybrid coreshell powders.
High pressure sintering HP-HT of diamond powders with titanium and titanium carbide. Polycrystalline diamond compacts for cutting tools are mostly manufactured using high pressure sintering HP-HT. The standard diamond compacts are prepared by diamond powders sintering with metallic binding phase. The first group of metallic binder are metals able to solve carbon - Co, Ni.
The second group of metal binders are carbide forming elements - Ti, Cr, W and others. The paper describes high pressure sintering of diamond powder with titanium and nonstoichiometry titanium carbide for cutting tool application. A type of binding phase has the significant influence on microstructure and mechanical properties of diamond compacts. Very homogeneous structure was achieved in case of compacts obtained from metalized diamond where diamond-TiC-diamond connection were predominant. In the case of compacts prepared by mechanical mixing of diamond with titanium powders the obtained structure was nonhomogeneous with titanium carbide clusters.
They had more diamond to diamond connections. These compacts compared to the compact made of metallized diamond have greater wear resistance. In the case of the diamond and TiC 0. TiC 0. For two type of compacts the strong bonding phase TiC without defects is creating. Chesters JH Refractories, production and properties. In: Metal matrix composites. Part 1: application and processing. In: Symposium 4. German RM Coarsening in sintering: grain shape distribution, grain size distribution and grain growth kinetics in solid-pore systems.
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